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</h1> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="description"> <p> 来源ï¼?a href='http://adwlearn.com/news/50.html'>http://adwlearn.com/news/50.html</a>   å‘布时间ï¼?018-09-10 </p> </div> </div> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="postbody"> 1821年拿破仑在圣海伦娜岛过世的前几天,他的侍从Marshal Bertrand写下拿破仑苦苦乞讨的情境:「早上他已要了二十回,问我能不能再给他几口咖啡。『不行,主子,医生吩咐只能喝一匙咖啡。时间还没到,你的胃不好,提早喝只会提早吐。』今早早上他已经吐了九次了。过去叱咤风云、率领大军,是个人人畏惧的英雄,如今沦落到乞讨咖啡,顺从的像个孩子。一次次的乞讨,一次次的被拒,却不生气。此情此景令人鼻酸。ã€?br /> <br /> 除了咖啡因之外,咖啡迷人的香气也是令拿破仑、我、众多咖啡迷时时想念咖啡的主要原因。可是到底为什么咖啡会这么香?最重要的当然是咖啡豆本身就储存了丰富的各种原料,如碳水化合物、蛋白质、脂类、有机酸等……再经过受热烘培就会启动一连串复杂的反应,而造就出诱人的香气ã€?br /> <br /> 而当中重要的两种反应当属焦糖化反应(caramelization,糖的氧化与褐变)与梅纳反应(Maillard reaction,胺基酸与糖类的反应)。这两种反应都需要糖类的参与,生豆中含量丰富的蔗糖,正好提供了这两种反应所需的材料。先前的研究也发现蔗糖含量与咖啡豆风味有着正向的相关性。从下表中可以看出阿拉比卡(Arabica)的蔗糖(Sucrose)在生豆时含量是罗布斯塔(Robusta)的两倍,也说明了阿拉比卡种的咖啡豆风味优于罗布斯塔的原因ã€?br /> <div id="yub00zc73i" style="text-align:center;"> <img src="/uploads/image/20180910/20180910102744_1459.jpg" alt="" /> </div> <br /> <strong>焦糖化反åº?/strong><br /> <br /> 某次在高雄文化中心附近点了杯瓜地马拉-微微特南果(Huehuetenango)搭配《我的探险生涯ã€?My Life As An Explorer by Sven Hedin)度过了一个美丽的下午。喝完咖啡后偶然发现残留在杯底干涸的咖啡渍排列成有趣的图案,就顺手拿起来看能不能看出下期大乐透的头彩号码,看了好一会儿也没看出ä¸?br /> <br /> 什么初一十五,倒觉得那些图案更像是位探险家在沙漠滚滚褐色沙丘间行进的景象。忽然之间一阵焦糖的甜香味闪现了一下,再仔细闻闻,甜甜的焦糖味居然是从杯底传来的,我点的微微特南果不是黑咖啡吗?为什么会有焦糖的甜味?后来才发现黑咖啡本身是真的有甜味的,特别是焦糖的甜最明显!但是每一种咖啡的甜味会因为豆种与烘培方式而各有不同变化ã€?br /> <br /> 咖啡豆中的糖份大约在170ï½?00℃进行焦糖化反应,正好是蔗糖熔点ï¼?85℃)、咖啡豆烘培时一爆阶段的温度。焦糖化反应的产物分为两部份ï¼?br /> <br /> 糖的脱水产物,就是焦糖或酱色<br /> 裂解产物,主要是一些挥发性的醛与酮ã€?br /> 总的来说,在焦糖化反应中产生了火烤的香味、焦糖与颜色,也产生了其他芳香性的物质如麦芽醇、Cyclotene、呋喃类化合物等等,这些化合物也可以在红酒、果汁、奶油等食物中发现ã€?br /> <br /> 不过如果在烘培的过程中焦糖化过头并不是件好事,反而会造成碳化,使咖啡燥苦绞喉。如果焦糖化不足则会使得香气单调乏味缺少层次ã€?br /> <br /> <strong>梅纳反应</strong><br /> <br /> 最近越来越多咖啡店在店门口摆台烘培机自己烘培,这样一来不但节省成本品质也可以自己控制。所以走在街上往往可以闻到烘培咖啡豆特有的香味,其中带有植物纤维燃烧的青蓝色烟焦味、奶油乳黄色的甜香、烤面包棕褐色的面包香等等各种味道集结在一起。这些丰富的味道大部来自于烘培时的梅纳反应ã€?br /> <br /> 梅纳反应可以分成三个阶段一、初期:<br /> <br /> 羰胺缩合Amadori分子重排<br /> <br /> 二、中期:<br /> <br /> Amadori分子重排产物果糖胺脱水成HMF(hydroxymethylfurfuralï¼?br /> 果糖胺脱去氨基成还原é…?br /> 胺基酸与二羰基化合物的作ç”?br /> <br /> 三、末期:<br /> <br /> <p> 醇醛缩合 </p> <p> <br /> </p> 生成黑色素的聚合反应<br /> <br /> 除了糖类,蛋白质在生豆重量中也占有大çº?1%,这些蛋白质中所含的胺基酸正好是梅纳反应中所需的原料。梅纳反应指的是食物中的胺基酸与还原糖(葡萄糖、果糖、乳糖等等…)在加热过程中一系列的反应。梅纳反应产生了非常多种的芳香物质与色素例如Pyridines, Pyrazines ,Oxazoles, Thiazoles, Pyrroles。梅纳反应在食物烹调的风味占有很重要的角色,不论是烤香肠时香肠变黑且散发出香味、外酥内软的烤鸡、香喷喷的烤面包这些烧烤类食物色香味俱全的背后功臣就是梅纳反应ã€?br /> <br /> 咖啡得天独厚拥有种类庞大又复杂的化学物质,除了以上提到的化合物还有其他有机酸、无机酸、植物碱等等成份。不只是香甜美好的成份,些微苦涩的化合物让咖啡风味有更宽广的层次与变化,共同创造出咖啡的丰富滋味ã€?br /> </div> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="item_tags"> 相关标签ï¼?<a href='/key.aspx?k=%b0%eb%d7%d4%b6%af%bf%a7%b7%c8%bb%fa'>半自动咖啡机</a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%c9%c5%c4%a7%ca%a6%bf%a7%b7%c8%bb%fa'>膳魔师咖啡机</a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%bd%f8%bf%da%bf%a7%b7%c8%bb%fa'>进口咖啡æœ?/a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%d2%c0%bf%a8%c0%ad%c2%ea%bf%a7%b7%c8%b6%b9'>依卡拉玛咖啡è±?/a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%bf%a7%b7%c8%b6%b9'>咖啡è±?/a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%bf%a7%b7%c8%b6%b9%b6%a8%d6%c6'>咖啡豆定åˆ?/a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%bf%a7%b7%c8%b6%b9%c5%fa%b7%a2'>咖啡豆批å?/a>, </div> <div id="tabBtn"> <div>上一æ?<a href="51.html">可口可乐日本公司本月将推出“咖啡可乐â€?/a></div> <div>下一æ?<a href="49.html">历史上咖啡曾有过坎坷的查禁遭é?/a></div> </div> </div> <div id="listContent"> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="item_tags"> <a>相关内容</a> </div> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="mlist type04"> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="content_wrapper"> <ul class="content_list clearfix"> <li id="item_block_0" class="item_block wow"> <a href="/news/61.html" title="咖啡原料供应商解析如何挑选咖啡豆" rel="nofollow" class="item_box"> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="item_wrapper clearfix"> <p class="date_wrap"> <span class="md"> 2019-07-13 </span> </p> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="item_info clearfix"> <p class="title ellipsis"> 咖啡原料供应商解析如何挑选咖啡豆 </p> <p class="subtitle ellipsis">鼎盛彩票平台 </p> </div> <div id="yub00zc73i" class="item_des"> <p class="description">鼎盛彩票平台 再好的家用咖啡机都需要配合好的咖啡豆来进行烹煮,还能提供浓郁 </p> </div> </div> </a> <a href="/news/61.html" class="details"> 详情 <i class="fa fa-angle-right" aria-hidden="true"> </i> </a> </li> <li id="item_block_0" class="item_block wow"> <a href="/news/60.html" title="怎样的家用咖啡机更靠è°? 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